What should a liver diet like?

The liver is the largest gland in the human body, and at the same time performs a number of extremely important functions. It is worth taking care of it, but do we really know what a liver diet should look like and what supports the regeneration of its cells? We explain these issues, and at the bottom of the post we publish a sample menu prepared by our clinical nutritionist.
Table of Contents:

1. Liver - the most important functions
2. The most common liver diseases
3. The causes of liver diseases
4. What should the liver diet look like?
5. Products that support the regeneration of liver cells
Silymarin for the liver (Milk Thistle)
Omega-3 fatty acids and the liver
Common artichoke
Curcumin for the liver
6. Sample diet for the liver - 1700 kcal
And breakfast - sandwiches with radish cottage cheese
2nd breakfast - porridge with roasted apple, cinnamon and milk thistle
Lunch - baked cod with dill
Afternoon tea - an easily digestible cream of zucchini and potatoes
Dinner - pumpkin dumplings
7. Bibliography
Liver - the most important functions
The liver is a parenchymal organ weighing 1400-1600 g, which accounts for about 2% of the adult human body weight. The liver is covered with the serous membrane (peritoneum), under which is the liver capsule (fibrous membrane). The liver (flesh) is not innervated, unlike the capsule of the liver, therefore any pain symptoms occur only in diseases of the liver leading to an increase in its volume and stretching or infiltration of the capsule.

The liver is responsible for the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. It also plays a role in maintaining proper lipid metabolism (cholesterol and triglycerides). The liver cells synthesize cholesterol (approx. 80%). HDL, or "good" cholesterol, is also synthesized to remove excess cholesterol and triglycerides from peripheral tissues. In addition, it is of great importance in maintaining a constant plasma glucose concentration. It is also involved in the metabolism of bilirubin, xenobiotics (removal of toxins and drugs) and the production of bile. The liver also transforms and stores copper, iron, zinc and molybdenum. Vitamins A, D and K as well as vitamins B12 and folic acid are also stored.

Liver disease can be divided into acute and chronic, and can be hereditary and acquired.
The most common liver diseases

Acute hepatitis
Chronic hepatitis
Alcoholic fatty liver disease
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
Cirrhosis
Diseases of the gallbladder and bile ducts
The causes of liver disease

Excessive alcohol consumption
Drug abuse and taking multiple medications at the same time
Hepatotropic viruses: HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, HEV and HGV, which cause viral hepatitis referred to as hepatitis and the letter of the type of virus
Protein and energy malnutrition
Hepatotoxic substances (substances with proven liver damaging effects, e.g. paracetamol or aflatoxins)
Incorrect diet (high in sugar and / or animal fats or hydrogenated vegetable fats),
Overweight and obesity (as well as type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and hypertension).
What should a liver diet look like?

* The following recommendations are an easy-to-digest diet to help regenerate the liver. In the case of a specific liver disease, the diet should be adjusted individually depending on the patient's health condition.

Meals should be eaten regularly, approximately 5-6 small meals in volume at intervals of 3-4 hours.
Food products should be selected fresh to prevent ingestion of toxins, which can further strain the liver.
You should ensure an adequate supply of protein, which is necessary for the regeneration of hepatocytes (liver cells). Lean meat and fish, rich in omega-3 fatty acids, are especially important.
Reduced consumption of saturated fatty acids and dietary cholesterol is essential. Vegetable oils such as olive oil, linseed oil, and milk thistle oil are recommended. Hard margarines, lard and lard are contraindicated.
When it comes to meats and processed meats, skinless chicken and turkey, lean beef, veal, poultry meats, and sirloin are recommended. Contraindicated are fatty pork, mutton, duck meat, black pudding, pates, sausages, canned meat.
Of milk and dairy products, skim milk and skim dairy products are recommended. You should eliminate fatty milk and cream from your diet.
Of the fish, cod, flounder, halibut, tench, pollock, hake, perch, trout, zander, pike are recommended. Fish should be boiled, baked without the skin.
As far as vegetables are concerned, boiled vegetables and finely chopped salads are recommended. Cruciferous vegetables, onions, garlic and legumes are contraindicated.
The fruit is best eaten without peels and seeds.
Light bread, oatmeal, white rice, small porridges, biscuits are recommended.




Recommended spices include: basil, cinnamon, dill, cumin, marjoram, oregano, parsley, basil, vanilla.
Alcohol, strong tea and coffee, carbonated drinks in any form are contraindicated.
Products that support the regeneration of liver cells
Silymarin for the liver (Milk Thistle)

Silymarin is the active ingredient obtained from milk thistle. It is used in the treatment of liver diseases due to its detoxifying, choleretic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. This component is a complex of various chemical compounds, such as silybin A, B, isosilibin B and falwonoligants. There are scientific studies supporting the beneficial effects of milk thistle (silymarin) in the treatment of hepatitis and cirrhosis, as well as biliary disorders. In one study in people with chronic hepatitis who received treatment to boost the immune system, a reduction in symptoms was seen in patients taking silymarin. The beneficial effects of the substances contained in milk thistle indicate that it may be helpful in the treatment and prevention of liver diseases and cancer of this organ. A positive effect of silymarin on weight loss, lowering the level of liver enzymes and the degree of liver destruction has been demonstrated. A similar effect is demonstrated by green tea extract in a dose of 800 mg / kg body weight.

Moreover, on the basis of pharmacological studies, it has been proven that silymarin can be used as a safe herbal medicine.

Omega-3 fatty acids and the liver

A positive effect is also demonstrated by the supplementation of omega-3 acids, which reduce the amount of fat in the liver. The recommended dose is over 0.83 g / day. The omega-3 fatty acids include eicosopentaenoic acid (EPA), docosopentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosocexapentaenoic acid (DHA). Dietary recommendations indicate that in people with hypertriglyceridemia the dose of EPA + DHA should be 3-4 g. The World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (WHO / FAO) recommend that the consumption of unsaturated fatty acids should be around 2% energy of the meals consumed.
Common artichoke


Artichoke is one of the richest dietary sources of polyphenols with high bioavailability; it also contains inulin, fiber, vitamins and minerals. The main aspect of artichoke's biological activity is the protection and regeneration of liver cells. Artichoke polyphenols act as cholagogue and cholagogue, as well as lower the level of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood serum. The high effectiveness of artichoke preparations is due to their direct effect on the improvement of liver and gallbladder function.
Curcumin for the liver

Curcumin is a compound obtained from turmeric rhizomes, popularly known as turmeric. Works, among others cholagogue and cholagogue. It protects the liver cells in cases of its damage caused by the action of various hepatotoxic factors (e.g. paracetamol, alcohol and alphatoxins). It is worth using curcumin with piperine - the active ingredient of pepper, which significantly increases the bioavailability of curcumin (up to 2000 times).


It should be remembered that in order to minimize liver disease as much as possible, you should start with, among others, from changing the lifestyle, eating less saturated fats and simple carbohydrates (especially fructose), enriching the diet with omega-3, 6 and 9 polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber and natural antioxidants. If possible, minimize the use of medications and the consumption of large amounts of alcohol.
Sample diet for the liver - 1700 kcal

And breakfast - sandwiches with radish cottage cheese

Ingredients:
+ Graham bread, 2 x slice, 60 g
+ Lean cottage cheese, 100 x gram, 100 g
+ Radish, 4 x piece, 60 g
+ Parsley, 1 x teaspoon, 6 g
+ Olive oil, 1 x spoon, 10 g

Preparation:
Mash the cottage cheese with a fork. Grate or chop the radishes, chop the parsley finely. For the cottage cheese
add radishes and parsley and mix. Sprinkle with czubryca / salt, savory and pepper and drizzle with olive oil (instead of
HEPAOIL is also perfect for olive oil). Brush the slice with cottage cheese, sprinkle with sprouts and black cumin. Eat
with your favorite vegetables.

2nd breakfast - porridge with roasted apple, cinnamon and milk thistle

Ingredients:
+ Oatmeal, 3 x tablespoon, 30 g
+ Natural yoghurt, 1 x package, 150 g
+ Apple, 0.5 x each, 85 g
+ Cinnamon, 1 x pinch, 0.5 g
+ Honey, 0.5 x teaspoon, 4 g
+ Ground milk thistle, 5 x gram, 5 g

Preparation:
Pour boiling water over the oatmeal and set aside to swell. Add plain yogurt, honey, and milk thistle thoroughly
mix. Pour a little water over the apples, add cinnamon and roast. Pour the yoghurt over the oatmeal and arrange it
apples.
Lunch - baked cod with dill

Ingredients:
+ Cod, 120 x gram, 120 g
+ Salt, 1 pinch, 0.3 g
+ Black pepper, 1 x pinch, 0.3 g
+ Lemon, 0.25 x each, 20 g
+ Olive oil, 1 x spoon, 10 g
+ Dill, 3 x spoon, 30 g

Preparation:
Wash and dry the fish. Rub it with salt and pepper. Place the fish on the aluminum foil, drizzle with olive oil and cover
dill and wrap in a purse. Put the fish in the fridge for 30-40 minutes and then put it in the preheated dish
200 degrees C of the oven. Bake for about 20 minutes. Put the finished fish on a plate and sprinkle with lemon juice. Serve with
rice, groats or potatoes.

Afternoon tea - an easily digestible cream of zucchini and potatoes

Ingredients:
+ Zucchini, 0.5 x piece, 150 g
+ Rapeseed oil, 1 x tablespoon, 10 g
+ Dried basil, 2 x gram, 2 g
+ Dried Oregano, 3 x gram, 3 g
+ Salt, 2 x pinch, 0.6 g
+ Black pepper, 2 x pinch, 0.6 g
+ Vegetable broth, 0.75 x glass, 180 g
+ Bay leaf, 1 x piece, 0.3 g
+ Allspice, 2 x piece, 2 g
+ Potato, 1.5 x each, 112.5 g

Preparation:
Peel the zucchini and potatoes, dice them and wash. Heat the oil in a pot, add vegetables for a while
fry together, stirring occasionally. Pour the whole broth, add spices. Cook until vegetables
will be soft, pick out bay leaves and allspice. Blend everything into cream.
Dinner - pumpkin dumplings

To eat:
1 of 2 servings

Ingredients to prepare 2 servings:
+ Pumpkin puree 2 x glass of 500 g
+ Wheat flour type 500 0.5 x glass 65 g
+ Potato flour 0.5 x a glass of 80 g
+ Egg 1 x piece 50 g
+ Salt 1 pinch 0.3 g

Preparation:
Crack the egg into a bowl, add the pumpkin puree. Blend. Add flour and salt, mix thoroughly. From the mass
form rolls, cut out hooves 2-3 cm long. Boil water in a pot, add the dumplings and cook
approx. 2 minutes from the moment the hoofs rise to the surface.

Bibliography:

Simon K. Diagnosis of liver diseases. Termedia Medical Publishing House. Poznań 2012: 9-16.
Hanje, A. James, et al. "The use of selected nutrition supplements and complementary and alternative medicine in liver disease." Nutrition in clinical practice3 (2006): 255-272.
Eslamparast, Tannaz, et al. "Recent advances in dietary supplementation, in treating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease." World journal of hepatology 7.2 (2015): 204.