Osteoporosis is referred to as a civilization disease. It is a systemic disease of the skeleton, characterized by low bone mass and their increased susceptibility to fracture. What diet to follow for this condition? Which supplements should you choose to feel better?

Types of osteoporosis

There are two types of osteoporosis:

   – Primary osteoporosis – usually independent of us, genetically and geographically determined. This can include the aging process, small skeletal structure, removal of the ovaries by women, fair complexion, early amenorhea, allergy to milk and milk products, slim physique with little body fat, nulliparity.

   – Secondary osteoporosis – the group of risk factors causing secondary osteoporosis includes endocrine diseases (hyperparathyroidism, adrenal hyperfunction, hyperthyroidism), gastroenterological diseases (digestive and/or absorption disorders, gastric or intestinal resection, chronic hepatopathy), hematological diseases (myeloid leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma), congenital connective tissue diseases or nephrological diseases.

How to prevent osteoporosis?

Move around

Bone mass loss is caused by lack of physical activity.

Reduce coffee and tea

Consuming more than 2 cups of coffee or 4 cups of tea per day increases the risk of osteoporotic fractures.

Reduce your alcohol consumption

It has been proven to have a toxic effect on osteoblasts, thus interrupting the cycle of the bone remodeling process.

 Quit smoking

Smoking is among the main risk factors for osteoporosis. Smoking is related to decreased bone density.

 Ensure an adequate diet

Special attention should be paid to the supply of calcium, vitamin D3, protein, potassium and magnesium. Vitamin K and vitamin C, which is used in the formation of collagen, are also needed for proper bone formation.

Osteoporosis treatment

In the treatment of osteoporosis, proper nutrition is of great importance. Its key task is to provide the body with all the nutrients that affect bone structure and mineral status.

Pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis

The most commonly used drugs in the pharmacotherapy of osteoporosis are bisphosphonic acids, in conjunction with calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation, controlled by regular blood tests. Pro-anabolic drugs, such as teriparatide, and drugs with a mixed mechanism of action, such as strontium ranelate, are also used in the treatment of osteoporosis.

What to supplement in order to strengthen the skeletal system?

 Several nutrients have been identified as having an essential role in bone growth:

    Vitamin D3 – regulates calcium-phosphate homeostasis, and through its direct effect on osteoblasts (cells that form bone), muscle and nerve cells – reduces the risk of fracture. The main role of vitamin D in bone mineralization is to ensure adequate concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in the blood.

    Calcium – an adequate supply of calcium as early as during growth is essential for proper mineralization of the skeleton and is responsible for achieving peak bone mass. In adulthood, calcium determines the maintenance of optimal bone mass, preventing the onset of osteoporosis.

    Magnesium – is important in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, as it is involved in many processes related to the protection, strengthening and remodeling of the skeletal system. Previous studies indicate that a deficiency of this element is one of the risk factors for the development of osteoporosis in the postmenopausal period.

    Vitamin B6 – is involved in collagen synthesis and calcium metabolism. Deficiency of this vitamin suppresses the ossification process and weakens the bones.

    Potassium – the importance of potassium in a diet to prevent osteoporosis can be justified by the fact that it is a major component of intracellular fluid and an element that can affect the calcium homeostasis of the human body. A high intake of potassium or its supplementation in case of deficiency can have a protective effect on bone tissue, as it lowers the excretion of calcium in the urine, and consequently contributes to an additional calcium balance in the body. This can result in an increase in BMD (bone mineral density) and a decrease in the rate of bone tissue resorption.

    Vitamin C – ascorbic acid affects the processes involved in the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts (cells that make up bone), as well as accelerating their growth and increasing their lifespan. Due to vitamin C deficiency, there may occur disorders in the formation of collagen spirals, a reduction in the amount of collagen fibers produced and disruptions in their structure, which in turn leads to a number of pathological changes in bone tissue. Vitamin C increases the absorption of calcium, iron and magnesium, so it too is an essential ingredient in the prevention of osteoporosis.

    Protein – influences the condition of bone tissue by participating in the synthesis of collagen and other matrix proteins, growth factors, insulin, needed in the process of bone formation. It has been proven that the proportion of protein in the diet in the amount of 1.2 g/kg b.w. reduces the loss of bone mass, reduces the risk of fractures and reduces the time of rehabilitation, after any fracture.

   Vitamin K – vitamin K supplementation has been shown to increase bone mineral density among women with compensatory spinal fracture, and to enhance bone formation among women after menopause.

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids – these acids have long been cited as an essential part of a healthy diet in all age groups. The results of recent studies confirm their effectiveness also in the prevention of osteoporosis.

    Collagen – makes up about 30% of all proteins found in the human body. After the age of twenty-five, as a result of the aging process, collagen levels are reduced, which can cause many bone and joint disorders. Dietary supplements containing collagen hydrolysate stimulate collagen synthesis in joints and bones. Studies have shown that this supplement is helpful in treating osteoarthrosis and osteoporosis.